How can Latin America and the Caribbean build back better after COVID-19? A new article, under the auspices of the Inter-American Development Bank, provides a series of reflections and initial public policy guidelines on how science, technology and innovation can help the region exit the crisis while laying the foundations for economic recovery.
Does gender matter for promotion in science? A new paper evaluates the careers of scientists at the French Institute of Physics, and finds that male and female physicists have the same rate of promotion from junior to senior positions. The results are based on a range of promotion factors: from mentoring to professional networks, from family characteristics to research responsibilities to overall productivity.
How has global migration governance evolved over the last century? A new study reviews global migration governance from 1919 to 2018, showing how proponents of a ‘management’ approach, primarily countries in the Global North, have preferred to keep intergovernmental discussions on migration outside of the United Nations in various state-led fora — i.e. in an informal and non-binding way.
These are just a few of the questions tackled by our researchers in September 2020 — in 10 journal articles, seven working papers, and one book, among many others. Click here for the full list of our most recent publications.
‘Regional integration and migration governance in the Global South‘ deals with the major challenges of migration in the Global South and their governance, which are traditionally much less considered than migration to industrialised countries and its consequences. The book is written in view of the intergovernmental agreement of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations in 2016, and one of the major recent events in international migration governance. Written by authors with a sound academic background and professional involvement in policy-relevant research, this volume focuses on priorities in implementation of the Global Compact in the Global South. It is addressed to a broad readership interested or involved in international migration governance, development studies, and regional studies, from a research as well as a policy perspective. By Dr. Katrin Marchand et al.
‘The impact of migration on development in developing countries: A review of the empirical literature’ brings together the empirical evidence on migration and development drawing on findings from quantitative studies from multiple research disciplines using a broad definition of both development and migration. By looking at different development aspects and outcomes, the chapter provides a general overview of the various effects of migration on development in developing countries that have been identified so far, what is still inconclusive, and where there are research gaps. By Dr. Lisa Andersson and Prof. Melissa Siegel.
‘Taking stock of the evidence on the consequences of hosting refugees in the Global South’ examines the recent empirical evidence on the consequences of hosting refugees concentrated within the Global South. Moreover, the chapter examines those general subjects with relatively more established evidence from the literature including economic and social impacts, as well as to a lesser extent issues like environmental and health effects. Heterogeneous impacts are emphasised where possible – for example, based on gender – considering the diversity within host communities themselves, as are the varied refugee-hosting contexts. By Dr. Craig Loschmann.
‘Contemporary labor migration in West and Central Africa: The main patterns, drivers and routes‘ focuses on the drivers, trends and routes of contemporary migration in the region for economic purposes. Bringing together existing evidence, the chapter highlights that, although different factors might influence migrants’ decision to move, migrants in West and Central Africa have been and continue to be in search of better (economic) opportunities. This holds for men, women as well as children and is associated with different risks for each of these groups. Migration of women and children is increasingly common in the West and Central African region. The main labour migration routes are, furthermore, mostly directed towards the relatively more developed coastal countries in the Southern part of the region, to neighbouring countries, and often historically rooted. The chapter highlights gaps in the current understanding of intra-regional migration and provides recommendations regarding labour migration management. By Chiara Janssen and Dr. Katrin Marchand
‘Conclusion: Migration in the Global South: Indications for the Global Compact?’ brings together the different contributions of the book, which in their own way all analyse relevant and new aspects of migration in the Global South. In doing so, this concluding chapter focuses on common issues and interests in migration at a Global South level and the differences to those of established industrialised countries, as well as policy and management of migration in the Global South. Based on this, two main recommendations are put forward. First, migration and development policy should be seen as complements rather than as substitutes. Second, managing the complex migration patterns in the Global South requires flexibility and adaptability, especially in the light of the Global Compact for Safe, Regular and Orderly Migration. A stronger involvement of regional organisations may contribute to moderating potential conflicts of interest on migration between the Northern industrialised countries and the countries of the Global South and, as such, strengthen the complementarity between migration and economic development. By Dr. Katrin Marchand et al.
‘Access to medicines after TRIPS: Is compulsory licensing an effective mechanism to lower drug prices? A review of the existing evidence’ undertakes a systematic review of the existing evidence on the impact of compulsory licensing on drug prices. Retrieval and analysis of 51 observations of pre- and post-compulsory licensing prices indicate that a compulsory licensing event is likely to reduce the price of a patented drug, albeit with some caveats. Moreover, compulsory licensing procurement from the international market is likely to be more effective in reducing drug prices than contracts to local companies. These findings are reconfirmed in the race to improve access to Remdesivir for hospitalised COVID-19 patients. The article argues that future incidence and impact of compulsory licensing will depend on further possible procedural refinements to ease its implementation, the development of technological and manufacturing capabilities in developing countries, and the importance of biologics among life-saving drugs. By Dr. Eduardo Urias and Prof. Shyama V. Ramani.
‘Uptake of HIV testing among adolescents and associated adolescent-friendly services’ links novel data from government-run health facilities and adolescent surveys to examine the association between uptake of HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and adolescent-friendly health service (AFHS) in two regions in Tanzania. The study finds that national guidelines on AFHS have not been fully translated into practice at the local level. It highlights particular gaps in adolescent referral systems and gender-based violence (GBV) services. Scaling up these two essential services could encourage greater HIV testing among a high-risk population, in addition to providing much-needed support for survivors of violence. By Dr. Jennifer Waidler et al.
‘On application of the precautionary principle to ban GMVs: an evolutionary model of new seed technology integration’ explores the conditions under which the precautionary principle can be implemented. The study demonstrates that even under complete and perfect information the need to exercise such caution depends principally on four factors: the economic gains from genetically modified plant varieties (GMV), the possibilities for sustaining the production of the conventional variety in the post-GMV period via compliance, the distribution of farmers over types and the compliance-contamination burden. By Prof. Shyama V. Ramani et al.
‘Territorial collaboration: a novel way to spread prosperity’ argues that place-based organisations working together and sharing their knowledge, expertise and resources can strengthen productive capacities and improve living standards in less-favoured areas. China has gone further than elsewhere through a solidarity programme that twins coastal city administrations with their rural counterparts. Long-term partnerships are upgrading infrastructure, institutions and human capabilities, and spurring private investment in agricultural and industrial projects. The study argues that interregional cooperation could assist other emerging economies through sharing, learning and investing in complementary activities. By Dr. Alexis Habiyaremye et al.
‘The time has come for science. Will Latin America and the Caribbean listen?’ shares experiences about the interventions that are being deployed inside and outside of Latin America and the Caribbean in response to COVID-19. The article provides a series of reflections and initial public policy guidelines on how science, technology, and innovation can generate conditions for the post-crisis exit and lay the foundation for economic recovery. By PhD fellow Fernando Vargas et al.
‘Once a destination for migrants, post-Gaddafi Libya has gone from transit route to containment‘ explains how conditions have changed for migrants in the post-Gaddafi era. In effect, there have been two stages: a state of transit from 2011 to late 2017, followed by a state of containment following the late 2017 implementation of a deal with Italy for the Libyan coast guard to thwart migrant boats from reaching European waters. This agreement was renewed in February 2020, offering a moment to reconsider its effect on migrants’ experiences. There is increasing evidence that after being intercepted at sea, migrants and refugees are often brought to Libyan detention centres where they suffer human rights abuses and are neglected. Migrant advocates’ concerns about the deal appear to have been proven correct. By Dr. Katherine Kuschminder.
‘Evaluations of return within a mass deportation: Ethiopians’ experiences of return after expulsion from Saudi Arabia‘ seeks to understand the role of the migration lifecycle in the subjective evaluation of return by Ethiopian deportees from Saudi Arabia, focusing on the conditions that lead to positive evaluation of the return. The article finds that subjective socio‐economic position is highly influential in returnees’ assessment of their reintegration, but those who are self‐employed on return are much less likely than those who are unemployed to describe their return positively. This may be linked to work conditions and because these respondents are engaged in necessity entrepreneurship. Additionally, all stages of the migration cycle, including before and during the migration episode, are influential in shaping perceptions of return. By Dr. Katherine Kuschminder, Zoe Ogahara and PhD fellow Iman Rajabzadeh.
‘Before disembarkation: Eritrean and Nigerian migrants journeys within Africa‘ examines the experiences of Nigerian and Eritrean migrants on their journeys from their origin country to prior to disembarkation across the Mediterranean Sea in Libya. This article examines how Eritrean and Nigerian migrants experience their journeys and navigate through complex environments. The results illustrate the differences in expectations, experiences, and transnational connections of the two cases. By Dr. Katherine Kuschminder.
‘Water innovation in South Africa: Mapping innovation successes and diffusion constraints‘ combines innovation diffusion theory with the technology maturation framework to explore the main factors that help explain the pace of innovation diffusion in the South African water sector. The study indicates that financing constraints and technical validation difficulties are among the main hurdles limiting the ability of innovators to scale up their inventions for commercialisation. Adoption costs and lack of municipal support budget are the most important factors that limit the ability of low-income rural households to adopt water innovations. Policy measures to support diffusion strategies are necessary to ensure that innovators have the means to overcome the multiple diffusion obstacles that they are confronted with. By Dr. Alexis Habiyaremye.
‘The effect of competitive public funding on scientific output: A comparison between China and the EU’ investigates whether different public funding agencies’ competitive assets have different impact on the volume of publication output. The study’s results support the hypotheses that competitively funded research output varies by funding sources, so that a high level of funding does not necessarily lead to high scientific output. Results show that FP7/H2020 funded projects do not have a positive contribution to the output of joint publications between China and the EU. Interestingly, cooperation in the form of jointly writing proposals to these EU programmes, especially when they are not granted by the European Commission, can contribute significantly to joint scientific publications in a later stage. This applies in particular to cases where funding from China is involved. The findings highlight the key role that funding agencies play in influencing research behaviour. Chinese funding triggers a high number of publications, whereas research funded by the EU does so to a much lower extent, arguably due to the EU’s strong focus on social impact and its funding schemes as tools to promote European integration. By Dr. Lili Wang et al.
‘Youth aspirations and the future of work: A review of the literature and evidence‘ was undertaken as part of the ILO Future of Work project. The report provides a literature review on the concepts and drivers of aspirations; develops a conceptual framework that relates labour market conditions to aspirations; maps the existing survey-based evidence on the aspirations of youth worldwide; and provides insights into how to improve data collection, research and evidence-based policy-making related to young persons’ aspirations. By Dr. Alison Cathles, Dr. Micheline Goedhuys, PhD fellow Chen Gong, PhD fellow Michelle Gonzalez Amador and Prof. Eleonora Nillesen.
‘Gender equality, women’s empowerment and child wellbeing in Ethiopia’ presents the findings of a trend analysis on gender equality and women’s empowerment in the country between 2011 and 2016 and the associations between women’s empowerment and child wellbeing outcomes. The study finds that over the last 16 years, Ethiopia has made significant progress on several dimensions of gender equality and women’s empowerment although disparities between rural and urban areas and across regions have persisted. By Dr. Victor Cebotari et al.
‘Supporting families and children beyond COVID-19: Social protection in Southern and Eastern Europe and Central Asia’ seeks to understand what the COVID-19 crisis means for children and for families with children in the countries of Southern and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In particular, the article explores what governments and stakeholders should be looking for when seeking to protect children from the worst outcomes of the crisis. By Dr. Victor Cebotari et al.
‘Roots of dissent: Trade liberalization and the rise of populism in Brazil’ investigates the long-term impact of economic shocks on populism, by exploiting a natural experiment created by the trade liberalisation process implemented in Brazil between 1990 and 1995. The paper shows that trade reforms explain the rise of populism in Brazil during the last two decades. Microregions with larger tariff cuts in the early 1990s had significantly higher preferences for Lula in 2002 and were also more likely to support Bolsonaro in 2018. The link between trade liberalisation and populism is mediated by austerity in both cases. The shift between left-wing and right-wing preferences is driven by the supply side of populism, whereby each leader took advantage of existing cleavages in the country at the time of their election—driven by inequality in the case of Lula and by insecurity and corruption in the case of Bolsonaro—to develop narratives against austerity that would appeal to their target audiences. By Francesco Iacoella, Dr. Bruno Martorano et al.
‘Intra-EU migration: Shedding light on drivers, corridors and the relative importance of migrant characteristics’ contributes to the understanding of the nature of individual mobility decision-making and the diversity of reasons that drive migration within the EU. Specifically, the paper provides an in-depth analysis of how intra-EU mobility decision-making relates to specific migrant characteristics such as country of origin, age, skill level and gender and the dynamics inherent to specific migration corridors. The results show that intra-EU migration decision-making is a highly complex process and is seldom based on one specific driver. Rather, the decision-making process is, in most cases, based on several interrelated factors beyond purely economic considerations. By Miriam Mack, Sarah Roeder, Dr. Katrin Marchand and Prof. Melissa Siegel.
‘Stagnant manufacturing growth in India: The role of the informal economy’ investigates the role of the informal segment in the stagnant growth of the manufacturing sector in the context of India. The paper finds that the informal segment is harmful to the growth in productivity of the manufacturing sector. The main source of this growth reduction is the within sub-sector structural change effect, indicating that workers move on average from productive formal to less productive informal employment within sub-sectors. Mainly, the authors find limited growth-reducing structural change after the 1994 liberalisation, implying that employment has moved to less productive informal firms after liberalisation. By Gbenoukpo Robert Djidonou and Dr. Neil Foster-McGregor.
‘Automation, globalisation and relative wages: An empirical analysis of winners and losers’ studies the effects of advances in robotics, tangible and intangible technologies, and trade openness and global value chain participation on relative wages, relying upon the skill-biased technical change and polarisation of the labour force frameworks. The study suggests that intangible technologies – especially software and databases – significantly increase the wage premium for high relative to lower-skilled labour. Additionally, the tangible component of ICT primarily benefits lower-skilled workers, whereas R&D and trade openness produce polarising effects. By Dr. Neil Foster-McGregor et al.
‘Does gender matter for promotion in science? Evidence from physicists in France’ investigates the factors of the promotion of female and male scientists at the French Institute of Physics (INP) at CNRS, one of the largest European public research organisations. The paper finds that female and male physicists have the same rate of promotion from junior to senior positions when controlling for research productivity and a variety of other promotion factors. The results also suggest that promotion factors such as family characteristics, mentoring, professional network, research responsibilities have different impacts on female and male researchers. By. Prof. Jacques Mairesse, Dr. Fabiana Visentin et al.
‘The role of innovation in industrial dynamics and productivity growth: a survey of the literature’ reviews the theoretical underpinnings and the empirical findings of the literature that investigates the effects of innovation on firm survival and firm productivity, which constitute the two main channels through which innovation drives growth. By. Prof. Marco Vivarelli et al.
‘A history of global migration governance: Challenging linearity’ reviews the main developments relevant to global migration governance from 1919 to 2018. A tension between informality with action, and formality with inaction, has impacted the way that global migration governance has evolved. Proponents of a ‘management’ approach to global migration governance, primarily countries in the Global North, have preferred to keep intergovernmental discussions regarding migration outside of the United Nations (UN) in various state-led fora in different regional and global settings. Conversely, countries in the Global South, along with normative organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) and Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), have sought to further a rights-based approach to the governance of migration within the UN. The ‘migration and development’ approach to global migration governance was used by Kofi Annan and Peter Sutherland in the 2000s to bring together states with fundamentally different views concerning the governance of migration. However, the outcome of these efforts is arguably a form of global governance that continues to reflect the preference of states, particularly in the Global North, to organise intergovernmental relations on migration in an informal and non-binding way. By. Dr. Elaine Lebon-McGregor.
‘Women’s empowerment and child well-being in Ethiopia’ presents the results of a trend analysis of women’s empowerment in Ethiopia over an 11-year period and analyses the relationships between women’s empowerment and child wellbeing in the domains of nutrition, health, health-related knowledge, education, and female genital mutilation (FGM). This is also the first time that an official indexed measurement of women’s empowerment has been constructed within Ethiopia’s country context. Overall, women’s empowerment has seen some improvements in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2016, but a myriad of issues persist. Based on the study, three sets of recommendations are proposed in order to design policy and programme interventions to enhance women’s empowerment, and ultimately children’s wellbeing, and to improve the quality of measurement and monitoring for future evaluations. By Dr. Victor Cebotari et al.
‘Tackling poverty and inequality in Southern Africa: Transnational growth corridors as a solution‘ argues that comprehensive harmonisation is crucial to eliminate inefficiencies that hamper free movement of goods and services in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. Territorial collaboration between metropolitan clusters and rural areas connected by transport corridors is a potential key to realising dynamic growth in the member countries. Growth corridors are a potential solution to advance regional complementarities and know-how on new technologies. By Dr. Alexis Habiyaremye.
‘E-resilience in education: A conceptual framework‘ presents a framework to visualise the e-resilience of the educational system, including ICT-related factors within the educational systems that determine the capacity of that system and actors in the system to deal with shocks. Policymakers and educations providers should be mindful about the various levels or ‘layers’ within society, as inequality in each of the levels may increase because of lower e-resilience at that level. By Dr. Mindel van de Laar.
‘Playing the ‘game’ of transparency and accountability in Kyrgyzstan’s natural resource governance‘ dissects how and what kind of transparency and accountability are enacted by actors in Kyrgyzstan. It critically reflects on the existing accounts that foreground elite strategies and political machines in the governance of post-Soviet societies and points to the need to explore non-elite agency in governing natural resources. The dissertation deconstructs resource politics in Kyrgyzstan by shedding light on how community power and networks are leveraged to play the ‘game’ of transparency and accountability in resource governance. By Dr. Janyl Moldalieva.
The opinions expressed here are the authors’ own; they do not necessarily reflect the views of UNU.