Dr. Tamara A. Kool

Beyond the Right to Work: Labour Market Engagement of Protracted Refugees through a Social Exclusion Lens

Year: 2022

Khalid Koser, Zina S. Nimeh and Lutz Krebs


Engagement of refugees in the labour market – whether formal or informal – should not be seen as an objective in itself but rather there is a need to critically assess to what extent and under what conditions refugees are able to access the labour market differently from the host community and which role policy has in shaping their engagement. Incorporating a social exclusion framework, this thesis seeks to better understand the role of refugee-related policies pertaining to status, camp and right to work in shaping the labour market engagement of protracted refugees. It furthermore is able to account for both between and within group differences of protracted refugee groups. 

This is explored within the context of Jordan, by examining the labour market engagement of Syrian and Palestinian refugees using a mixed methods approach. By considering the past and recent inflows into Jordan, this study provides insight into determinants of and dynamics behind labour market participation of refugees over time, and also allows for a juxtaposition of camp and urban refugees. It thus not only contributes to the ongoing debate on labour market participation of refugees but also informs the understanding on how policies shape the different rights of refugees and their subsequent labour market outcomes.?

Selected publications by Tamara A. Kool

Articles (journal, professional, popular)
Kool, Tamara A. , 2022, `Promotiebespreking: Tamara A. Kool, ESB, 107
Ammann, Theresa A. & Tamara A. Kool, 2021, `A Systematic Literature Review of Gendered Human Security Approaches, Journal of Human Security, 17, More information
Gasper, D., R. Jolly, G. Koehler, Tamara A. Kool & M. Simane, 2020, `Shake and stir: Adding human security and human resilience to help advance the SDGs agenda, Journal of Human Security Studies, 9, More information

Book chapters
Kool, Tamara A. & Zina Nimeh, 2021, Refugees and Social Protection, in: E. Schüring and M. Loewe (eds), Handbook of Social Protection Systems, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

UNU-MERIT Working Papers
Kool, Tamara A. & Zina Nimeh, 2024, Labour market integration for refugees: A social justice framework, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2024-012
Kool, Tamara A. , Giulio Bordon & Franziska Gassmann, 2021, Access to social protection for platform and other non-standard workers: A literature review, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2021-002
Nimeh, Zina, Tamara A. Kool, Francesco Iacoella & Alex Hunns, 2020, Rethinking humanitarian aid & making the case for humanitarian social protection: A response to the 2019 Global Refugee Forum, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2020-053
Chongcharoentanawat, Patima, Kaleab Haile, Bart Kleine Deters, Tamara A. Kool & Victor Osei Kwadwo, 2016, The affordability of the Sustainable Development Goals: A myth or reality?, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2016-027
Kool, Tamara A. , 2015, Moving beyond the UNSCR 1325 framework: Women as economic participants during and after conflict, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2015-034
Freeman, Ian, Charles Low, Sam Salsal, Emilia Toczydlowska & Tamara A. Kool (eds.), 2015, Inside the Black Box: Contributions to the discussion on official development assistance, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2015-014

External working papers
Kawar, Mary, Zina Nimeh & Tamara A. Kool, 2022, From Protection to Transformation: Understanding the Formal Landscape of Social Protection in Jordan, ERF Working Paper No 1590, More information
Gasper, D.R., R. Jolly, G. Koehler, Tamara A. Kool & M. Simane, 2020, Adding human security and human resilience to help advance the SDGs agenda, ISS Working Paper Series / General Series No. 665, More information

Research reports
Kool, Tamara A. & Franziska Gassmann, 2022, Essential Needs Analysis & Programming: A global review of WFP’s approach and experience to-date, Report commissioned by WFP Rome
Gassmann, Franziska, Eszter Timar, Tamara A. Kool, Zina Nimeh, Teresa Janz & et al., 2020, Jordan Country Report on Out of School Children, report commissioned by UNICEF Jordan, More information

Kool, Tamara A. , 2022, Beyond the Right to Work: Labour Market Engagement of Protracted Refugees through a Social Exclusion Lens, PhD dissertation Maastricht University / United Nations University. DOI:, More information

Kawar, Mary, Zina Nimeh & Tamara A. Kool, 2022, The Importance of the Transformative Angle for Advancing the Social Protection Agenda in Jordan, The Mapping of social protection programmes discussed in this brief highlights that programmes are mainly reactive in nature, and an overarching harmonization is still missing. In moving forward, transformative social protection policies and programmes in Jordan should incorporate both development and humanitarian objectives. This, More information

Other (editorship, media appearance, keynote, etc.)
Merkle, Ortrun & Tamara A. Kool, 2015, , More information