Product, process and organizational innovation: drivers, complementarity and productivity effects

Michael Polder, George van Leeuwen, Pierre Mohnen & Wladimir Raymond


We propose a model where both R&D and ICT investment feed into a system of three innovation output equations (product, process and organizational innovation), which ultimately feeds into a productivity equation. We find that ICT investment and usage are important drivers of innovation in both manufacturing and services. Doing more R&D has a positive effect on product innovation in manufacturing. The strongest productivity effects are derived from organizational innovation. We find positive effects of product and process innovation when combined with an organizational innovation. There is evidence that organizational innovation is complementary to process innovation.

Keywords: Innovation, ICT, R&D, productivity

JEL codes: L25, O30-033

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