Systems of Innovation

Luc Soete, Bart Verspagen & Bas ter Weel


We review the literature on national innovation systems. We first focus on the emergence of the concept of innovation systems, reviewing its historical origins and three main flavours (associated to three “founding fathers” of the concept). After this, we discuss how the notion of innovation systems filled a need for providing a broader basis for innovation policy. We conclude with some perspectives on the future of the innovation systems literature.

Keywords: National innovation systems, innovation policy

JEL Codes: O38, O31

UNU-MERIT Working Papers ISSN 1871-9872

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