Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is
characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to
overcome technical and instititonal barriers. Research into and
translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the
market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand
the key factors that foster or hinder the complex process of translating
R&D efforts into innovative products. Different pathways exist in
developed countries such as firm-level efforts, the use of IPs, the
spin-off of new firms that develop new products, or a mixture of these.
Developing countries differ substantially in the kinds of instruments
they use because of their considerably weaker institutional environment
and for this reason our framework takes a systemic and institutional
perspective. The paper comtributes to this issue by examining systemic
institutional barriers to commercializing biotechnology in a develping
context within a systems of innovation framework.
Keywords: Biotechnology, commercialization, innovation, Africa, learning and institutions.