Prof. Dr. Fred Gault


Professorial Fellow

Research group(s):
5. Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Sustainability Transitions

Fred Gault is a Professor Extraordinairy at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in South Africa and a member of the TUT Institute for Economic Research on Innovation (IERI). He is a Visiting Professor at the University of Johannesburg in the DST/NRF/Newton Fund Trilateral Research Chair in Transformative Innovation, the 4th Industrial Revolution and Sustainable Development. He served on the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) Panel on the State of Science and Technology in Canada, the CCA Panel on the Socio-Economic Impacts of Innovation Investments, and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Panel on Developing Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators for the Future. He chairs the Advisory Committee of the Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (CeSTII) at the Human Sciences Research Council in South Africa. His research interests are in the statistical measurement of innovation in all economic sectors and the use of the resulting indicators to develop policy and to monitor and evaluate implimented innovation policy.




Selected publications by Fred Gault


Articles (journal, professional, popular)
Gault, Fred, 2019, User innovation in the digital economy, Foresight and STI Governance, 13(3): 6-13, DOI: 10.17323/2500-2597.2019.3.6.12., More information
Charmes, Jacques, Fred Gault & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2018, Measuring innovation in the informal economy: formulating an agenda for Africa, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(3): 536-549, DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2016-0126, More information
Gault, Fred, 2018, Defining and measuring innovation in all sectors of the economy, Research Policy, 47(3): 617-622, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2018.01.007, More information
Jong, Jeroen P.J. de, Eric von Hippel, Fred Gault, Jari Kuusisto & Christina Raasch, 2015, Market failure in the diffusion of consumer-developed innovations: Patterns in Finland, Research Policy, 44(10): 1856-1865, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2015.06.015, More information
Gault, Fred, 2012, User Innovation and the Market, Science and Public Policy, 39: 118-128, DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scs005, More information
Gault, Fred, 2009, The OECD Innovation Strategy: Delivering Value, Foresight, 1(9): 16-28
Gault, Fred & Susanne Huttner, 2008, Commentary: A Cat’s Cradle for Policy, Nature, 455: 462-463
Gault, Fred, 2008, Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators: Opportunities for Africa, African Statistical Journal, 6: 141-162
Gault, Fred & A. Rose, 2008, Small R&D Performers in Canada, Foresight, 1(3): 53-57
Gault, Fred, 2004, Improving the Measurement of Research and Development in the United States, American Statistical Association Proceedings: 1558-1567


Book chapters
Gault, Fred, 2018, Measuring the Economic and Social Impact of Innovation for Sustainable Development, in: Nuria Sanz and Carlos Tejada (eds), Innovación para el Dessarrollo Sostenible, Gobierno del Estado de Guanajuato en colaboración con la Oficina de la UNESCO en México, México, More information
Charmes, Jacques, Fred Gault & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2016, Measuring Innovation in the Informal Economy - Formulating an Agenda, in: Erika Kraemer-Mbula and Sacha Wunsch-Vincent (eds.), The Informal Economy in Developing Nations – Hidden Engine of Innovation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Gault, Fred, 2016, User Innovation and Official Statistics, in: Dietmar Harhoff and Karim R. Lakhani (eds), Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities and Open Innovation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Gault, Fred, 2014, ¿Cuál es el destino de los indicadores de innovación y sus aplicaciones?, in: Rodolfo Barrere y Mónica Salazar (Editores), Temas de Indicadores de Ciencia y Technologia, RICYT, Buenos Aires
Gault, Fred, 2013, Innovation indicators and measurement challenges, in: Fred Gault, (ed.), Handbook of Innovation Indicators and Measurement, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA
Gault, Fred, 2013, The Oslo Manual, in: Fred Gault, (ed.), Handbook of Innovation Indicators and Measurement, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA
Gault, Fred, 2013, Innovation indicators and measurement: an overview, in: Fred Gault, (ed.), Handbook of Innovation Indicators and Measurement, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA
Gault, Fred & G. Zhang, 2011, The role of innovation in the area of development , in: OECD and IDRC, Innovation and the Development Agenda, OECD, Paris, DOI: 10.1787/9789264088924-4-en, More information
Gault, Fred, 2011, Impactos sociales del desarrollo de los indicadores de ciencia technologiae innovationcion, in: Mario Albornoz y Luis Plaza (eds.), Agenda 2011: Temas de indicadores de Ciencia y Technologia,, REDES, Buenos Aires
Gault, Fred, 2011, Developing a Science of Innovation Policy Internationally, in: Husbands-Fealing, K., Lane, J., Marburger, J., Shipp, S. and Valdez, B. (eds), Science of Science Policy: A Handbook, Stanford University Press, Stanford
Gault, Fred & G. Zhang, 2010, Challenges and Directions, in: Kraemer-Mbula, E. and Wamae, W. (eds), Innovation and the Development Agenda, OECD & IDRC, Paris-Ottawa
Gault, Fred, 2010, Indicators for the Knowledge-Based Economy and Knowledge Activities, in: Manfred Moldaschl and Nico Stehr, (eds), Wissensökonomie und Innovation, Beiträge zur Ökonomie der Wissensgesellschaft, Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg
Gault, Fred, 2007, Technology and Innovation Indicators - The Context of Change, in: Anthony Arundel, Alessandra Colecchia and Fred Gault, (eds.), Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators in a Changing World: Responding to Policy Needs, OECD, Paris
Gault, Fred, 2007, Assessing International S&T Co-operation for Sustainable Development: Towards Evidence-Based Policy, in: OECD, Integrating Science and Technology into Development Policies: An International Perspective, OECD, Paris
Gault, Fred, 2006, Measuring Knowledge and its Economic Effects: The Role of Official Statistics, in: Brian Kahin and Dominique Foray (eds.), Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy, The MIT Press, Cambridge
Earl, Louise & Fred Gault, 2006, Insights into Innovation, Indicators and Policy, in: Louise Earl and Fred Gault (eds.), National Innovation, Indicators and Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham
Earl, Louise & Fred Gault, 2006, An Introduction to Innovation and Policy, in: Louise Earl and Fred Gault (eds.), National Innovation, Indicators and Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham
Gault, Fred, 2005, Indicators: Their Development and Their Use in Public Policy, in: Inzelt, A. and Zaman, G. (eds.), Science and Technology Policy Lessons for CEE Countries, The Expert Publishing House, Bucharest


Books (monograph or edited volume)
Gault, Fred, 2020, Measuring innovation Everywhere: The Challenge of Better Policy, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA, UK, 128 pp, More information
Gault, Fred, 2020, Measuring innovation Everywhere: The Challenge of Better Policy, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA, 160 pp, DOI: 10.4337/9781789904567, More information
Gault, Fred, 2013, Handbook of innovation indicators and measurement, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 512 pp, More information
Gault, Fred, 2010, Innovation Strategies for a Global Economy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 232 pp, More information
Arundel, Anthony, A. Colecchia & Fred Gault (eds.), 2007, Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators in a Changing World: Responding to Policy Needs, OECD, Paris, More information
Earl, Louise & Fred Gault (eds.), 2006, National Innovation, Indicators and Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, More information
Foray, Dominique & Fred Gault (eds.), 2003, Measuring Knowledge Management in the Business Sector: First Steps, OECD, Paris, More information
Gault, Fred (ed.), 2003, Understanding Innovation in Canadian Industry, Queen’s University School of Policy Studies, McGill-Queen’s Press, Montreal and Kingston, 452pp, More information


UNU-MERIT Working Papers
Gault, Fred, 2015, Measuring innovation in all sectors of the economy, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2015-038
Gault, Fred, 2014, Where are innovation indicators, and their applications, going?, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2014-055
Kuusisto, Jari, Mervi Niemi & Fred Gault, 2014, User innovators and their influence on innovation activities of firms in Finland, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2014-003
Gault, Fred, 2011, User innovation and the market, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2011-009
Gault, Fred, 2011, Social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators, UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2011-008


External working papers
Gault, Fred & Magnus Hakvåg, 2018, Co-operation between the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on the Definition of Innovation for Innovation Management and Statistical Measurement, More information
Kuusisto, Jari, Jeroen P.J. de Jong, Fred Gault, Christina Raasch & Eric von Hippel, 2013, Consumer Innovation in Finland: Incidence, Diffusion and Policy Implications, Proceedings of the University of Vaasa Reports 189, Vaasa, Finland: University of Vaasa, More information
Hawkins, R., Fred Gault, P. Dufour, J. Geelen & M. Saner, 2013, Canada's Future as an Innovative Society: A Decalogue of Policy Criteria, Institute for Science, Society and Policy Report, Ottawa: University of Ottawa, Institute for Science, Society and Policy, More information
Gault, Fred & Eric von Hippel, 2009, The Prevalence of User Innovation and Free Innovation Transfers: Implications for Statistical Indicators and Innovation Policy, MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper no. 4722-09, Cambridge, MA: MIT. pp. 29, More information
Schellings, Robert & Fred Gault, 2006, Size and Persistence of R&D Performance in Canadian Firms, Catalogue No. 88F0006XIE, No. 8, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, pp. 24, More information
Bordt, Michael, Louise Earl & Fred Gault, 2005, Summary: Meeting on Commercialization Measurement, Indicators, Gaps and Frameworks, Ottawa, More information
Gault, Fred & Louise Earl, 2004, Innovative Firms: A Look at Small Firms, Catalogue No. 88F0006XIE, No. 10, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, More information


Conference contributions
Gault, Fred, 2017, Why should low income countries measure innovation?, SPRU Seminar, University of Sussex, UK
Gault, Fred, 2017, Towards STI Indicators for Inclusive Development, Special Session 2.2, 15th Globelics International Conference, October 11-13, 2017. Innovation and Capacity Building in the Context of Financialization and Uneven Development of the Global Economy: New Roles for the State, Productive Sector and Social Actors, Athens, Greece
Gault, Fred, 2017, STI Policies, New perspectives, International Seminar on the Promotion, Development, Support and Evaluation of Innovation, FINEP and the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, August 28-29, 2017, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Gault, Fred, 2017, Frascati Manual 2015, Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development, Novelties on the measurement and reporting data on R&D, Presentation of the Catalan version of the Frascati Manual, School of Public Administration of Catalonia, June 23, 2017, Barcelona, Spain
Gault, Fred, 2017, Measuring the Economic and Social Impact of Innovation for Sustainable Development, Paper presented at the High-Level International Forum: Innovation for Sustainable Development, September 11-13, 2017, State of Guanajuato, Mexico, pp.9
Gault, Fred, 2017, Innovation in the Household Sector: Definitions, Statistical Measurement and Policy, Paper presented at the Open and User Innovation Conference, July 10-12, University of Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 9
Gault, Fred, 2017, Measuring Innovation, Structural Change and Inclusion, IDS-SPRU Workshop, Innovation pathways to inclusive structural change. February 2, 2017, London
Gault, Fred, 2017, Why broaden the definition of innovation?, Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Euro Area, Session 2: Advances in Measurement of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Policy Implications and Potential for Progress. March 13-14, 2017, European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, More information
Gault, Fred, 2016, The connection between measurement and innovation policy, Globelics Academy, IERI, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, June 24, 2016, More information
Gault, Fred, 2016, Innovation Indicators, Globelics Academy, IERI, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, June 23, 2016, More information
Gault, Fred, 2016, Measuring Public Sector Innovation and Social Progress Innovation indicators for the public sector, NCSES/CNSTAT Workshop, Advancing concepts and models of innovative activity and STI indicator systems. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, May 19-20, 2016, More information
Gault, Fred, 2016, Defining and Measuring Innovation in all Sectors of the Economy: Policy Relevance, OECD Blue Sky Forum, Informing Science and Innovation Policies: Towards the Next Generation of data and indicators. September 19-21, 2016, Ghent, Belgium, More information
Gault, Fred, Aggrey Ambali & Tichaona Mangwende, 2016, Innovation in Africa: Measurement Policy and Global Issues, SPRU 50 Anniversary Conference, September 7-9, 2016, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK, More information
Gault, Fred, 2016, Defining Innovation, for measurement purposes, ZEW Workshop - Innovation in Firms: Proposals for a better measurement framework, Centre for European Research (ZEW), Mannheim, May 30, 2016
Gault, Fred, 2016, Assessing Innovation Measurement: How accurately do we measure innovation and the resultant outcomes delivered to society and the economy., NCSES/CNSTAT Workshop, Advancing concepts and models of innovative activity and STI indicator systems. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, May 19-20, 2016, More information


Briefs
Gault, Fred, Michiko Iizuka, Elisa Calza, Philippe Mawoko & Almamy Konté, 2018, Innovation for Development in West Africa: Challenges for Promoting ST&I Policy, This is the second in a series of workshops on the ‘Design and Evaluation of Innovation Policies for Africa’ (DEIP-Africa), reflecting the great interest of African regions in Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) policies and their social and economic impacts. Representatives of 12 countries from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) met in Côte d’Ivoire from 25-29 September 2017 to discuss existing policies and their development, in light of the African Union Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa (STISA-2024), and the broader African Union Agenda 2063. This event provided a platform to examine diversity within ECOWAS and common challenges to be met, More information
Iizuka, Michiko, Philippe Mawoko, Fred Gault & Howard Hudson (eds.), 2015, Innovation for Development in Southern and Eastern Africa: Challenges for Promoting ST&I Policy, After three decades of trial and error, innovation policy is now taking off in Africa. The African Union recently devised a new strategy called the ‘Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) Strategy for Africa 2024 (STISA-2024)’ in parallel with each member country’s efforts to harness ST&I policy, More information


UNU-MERIT