China is developing rapidly on many fronts, but how broad and how deep are scientific links between China and EU member states (especially the less advanced countries)? Some African nations are experimenting with cash transfer programmes, but will they be able to scale up and improve health and education outcomes across the board? And scenario planning can help predict migration flows, but what are the long-term trends and implications for population mobility? These are just a few of the questions tackled by our researchers in July and August 2017 — in eight journal articles and seven working papers, among many others. Click here for the full list of our most recent publications.
‘Network structure of scientific collaborations between China and the EU member states’ shows that EU member states with middle- or low- scientific capacities, in particular those who joined the EU after 2000, have been actively reshaping the network of scientific collaborations with China. The linkages between middle- and low- scientific capacity countries have been tremendously strengthened in recent years. This article shows that the network positional advantage has shifted from a few dominant nations to a wider range of countries. By Dr. Lili Wang et al.
‘Catching-up, structural transformation, and inequality: industry-level evidence from Asia‘ empirically investigates the effect of structural transformation on wage inequality in Asia, using industry-level data for three skill groups of workers. The article shows that the process of economic transformation has exacerbated inequality in the region by increasing the relative share of high-skilled workers in total compensation. This is mainly due to a shift toward more productive—and more intensive in the use of skilled labor—activities both within and between industries. However, the author also finds that policy responses, especially investments in education, mitigate the increase in inequality. By Bruno Martorano et al.
‘The role of community mobilization in maternal care provision for women in sub-Saharan Africa – A systematic review of studies using an experimental design’ aims to systematically review the empirical evidence on the role of community mobilisation in improving maternal health outcomes of HIV positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, the results show that while there is some empirical evidence on a causal link between community mobilisation and maternal health outcomes for HIV negative women, this kind of evidence is still missing for HIV positive women. Moreover, as shown by the studies, community mobilisation as a maternal health strategy is still in its infancy. Given the gaps identified in this article, the authors recommend further research in the topic. By PhD fellow Choolwe Muzyamba, Dr. Sonila Tomini et al.
‘Adult child migration and elderly multidimensional well-being: Comparative analysis between Moldova and Georgia’ seeks to document the relationship between the migration of an adult child and the well-being of his or her elderly parent(s) remaining in the country of origin. The article suggests that the migration of an adult child is not as significant a factor in shaping well-being outcomes as would be expected based on past literature; other factors may play much stronger roles in shaping of well-being. By Dr. Michaella Vanore, Prof. Melissa Siegel, Prof. Franziska Gassmann and PhD fellow Jennifer Waidler.
‘Return migrants’ perceptions of living conditions in Ethiopia: A gendered analysis’ seeks to further examine the factors that determine the differences in men and women’s perceptions upon return. This article investigates the case of Ethiopian returnees by exploring three sets of independent variables: (1) the migration experience, (2) the return experience, and (3) the post-return conditions in Ethiopia. The analyses demonstrate that: first, women have significantly worse perceptions of their living conditions upon return to Ethiopia than men do; second, migration experiences are the most significant variables that influence perceptions of living conditions upon return. Considering this latter result, the authors conclude by highlighting the importance of situating return experiences within the wider context of the entire migration cycle and recognising the long-term effects of migration experiences that persist after return. By Dr. Özge Bilgili, Dr. Katherine Kuschminder and Prof. Melissa Siegel.
‘Global migration futures: Exploring the future of international migration with a scenario methodology’ presents the Global Migration Futures (GMF) Scenario Methodology developed at the University of Oxford’s International Migration Institute (IMI). The GMF Scenario Methodology integrates insights from migration theory with techniques from the Intuitive Logics School of scenario planning to enable the simultaneous and systematic examination of relatively certain and uncertain migration determinants, their future evolution as well as their implications for population mobility. In addition, this article discusses the key insights gained through the application of the GMF Scenario Methodology in different world regions as well as its main limitations. By PhD fellow Ayla Bonfiglio, Prof. Hein de Haas et al.
‘Discovery’ of non-traditional agricultural exports in Latin America: diverging pathways through learning and innovation‘ examines four cases of non-traditional agricultural export products – cut flowers (Colombia and Ecuador) and blueberries (Chile and Argentina). In so doing, this article identifies how the ‘self-discovery’ process of pioneers shapes the distinctive pathways through interacting with global, local and natural conditions using the adapted framework of functions of innovation systems. By Dr. Michiko Iizuka and Dr. Mulu Gebreeyesus.
‘Competition for talent: retaining graduates in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine’ adds a euregional perspective to the existing literature on graduate migration by investigating whether or not students intend to stay in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) after graduation. The study takes into account the role of hard and soft locational factors, social factors as well as individual characteristics in shaping future graduates’ mobility preferences. Using survey data from 2015 from five higher education institutions in the EMR, this paper finds that mobility intentions are determined by students’ perceptions of the quality of life, openness and career opportunities in the euroregion. In addition, distance to the partner and other social ties such as family and friends influence migration intentions. By PhD fellow Julia Reinold, Prof. Melissa Siegel et al.
‘The hearts and minds in conflict and peace: The economics of counterinsurgency and the psychology of reconstruction’ on the one hand explores the limit of the development approach of counterinsurgency and on the other hand examines the socio-psychological aspect of post-conflict reconstruction. Furthermore, this PhD dissertation unpacks the trust-building mechanism. Contrary to what most people think, improved public services do not always buy government trust. And it is how the sense of local ownership was cultivated that matters in trust-building. Listening and responding to the demands of people are the most effective ways of restoring trust and peace. By Dr. Pui-hang Wong.
‘A study on the link between corruption and the causes of migration and forced displacement’ aims to develop a theoretical framework explaining the links between corruption and migration, including various forms of migration such as forced and voluntary migration as well as forced displacement. The study identifies how corruption impacts human security and thereby directly or indirectly leads to migration and displacement, develops research hypotheses and gives recommendations for addressing corruption as a cause of migration and displacement. By PhD fellows Ortrun Merkle and Julia Reinold and Prof. Melissa Siegel.
‘How inequality hurts growth: Revisiting the Galor-Zeira model through a Korean case’ aims to show that the level of inequality increases via the human capital channel with credit market imperfections generating negative effects on economic growth. The paper empirically confirms that education plays a significant role in the divergence of household wealth over time and that the government’s financial aid package in the form of the new student loans programme positively influences equality and short-run economic growth by promoting the number of skilled workers. By Mary Kaltenberg et al.
‘Economic diversification: Explaining the pattern of diversification in the global economy and its implications for fostering diversification in poorer countries’ presents a model of structural economic dynamics and endogenous technological change that is able to replicate empirical regularities related to economic diversification. The model is used to study strategies to foster diversification in poorer countries, which could help to better target action in the implementation of internationally agreed goals related to the economic diversification of these countries. By PhD fellow Clovis Freire Junior.
‘The need to customise innovation indicators in developing countries.’ This paper argues that, for innovation indicators, and for innovation survey indicators in particular, data collection has to be customised to the different socio‐economic structures of developing countries. For this, the definition of innovation has to become more inclusive by recognising the multitude of innovation actors and processes in developing countries. Developing countries also need to build competence regarding innovation indicators, not only within their statistical systems but also among their policy makers. By Dr. Michiko Iizuka and Hugo Hollanders.
‘Husbands’ return migration and wives’ occupational choices’ establishes a link between return migration of men and their wives’ time use through within-couple occupational interdependence. Seemingly unrelated regression model estimates suggest that being married to a migrant who opted for self-employment upon return decreases a woman’s likelihood to engage in paid work, and increases her likelihood to engage in family work and subsistence farming, at both the extensive and intensive margins. This is pronounced for rural families, and when husbands work in agriculture. Results differ by education level, illiterate wives engaging significantly more in paid as well as unpaid work compared to more educated women. The paper‘s findings are consistent with theoretical models of occupational interdependence between spouses and assortative mating; they highlight the need to buffer potentially depriving migration-induced effects on women’s time use, even once migration is complete. By PhD fellow Clotilde Mahé.
‘Opening and linking up: Firms, global value chains and productivity in Latin America’ explores the relationship between exports, Global Value Chains’ (GVCs) participation and position, and firms’ productivity. To this aim, the paper combines the most recent World Bank Enterprise Survey in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with the OECD‐WTO trade in value added data. The outcomes confirm the presence of a positive relationship between participation in international activities and firm performance. They also show that both participation in GVCs and position within GVCs matter. The paper‘s findings have strong policy implications and may help policymakers in choosing the best policy options to enhance the link between GVCs integration and firms’ productivity. By Prof. Carlo Pietrobelli et al.
‘Social protection investments, human capital, and income growth: Simulating the returns to social cash transfers in Uganda’ assesses the short‐ and mid‐term effects of two cash transfer programmes in Uganda in terms of child underweight, school attainment, and the monetary returns to these indirect effects. Using a micro‐simulation approach, the paper tests how the scale‐up of these pilot interventions could affect human capital indicators and income growth. By PhD fellow Stephan Dietrich, Prof. Franziska Gassmann, Prof. Pierre Mohnen, Dr. Nyasha Tirivayi et al.
‘Indigenous land rights and deforestation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon‘ studies whether formalisation of indigenous communities’ land rights affects the rate of deforestation in both the short and medium terms. The paper observes low counterfactual rates of deforestation on communities’ lands between 1982 and 2010, suggesting that indigenous land rights programmes should not uniformly be justified on the basis of their forest protection, at least in the medium term. By PhD fellow Silke Heuser et al.
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